What are the non-operative treatments?
Treatment should start with non-operative options. The first step is activity modification which the patient may well already have tried. Pain killers (analgesics) particularly anti-inflammatory analgesics, such as Ibuprofen (Nurofen) and Diclofenac (Voltarol) can be very helpful for the pain. These can be applied as a gel, massaging the area, or taken orally, assuming there is no history of indigestion. A splint for certain activities can also be of value. A splint on the end of the thumb may prevent it being knocked during certain activities and can rest the joint. If these measures are insufficient then a steroid injection would usually be recommended. An injection is given of a long-acting steroid, such as Depomedrone or Triamcinolone, with some local anaesthetic into the joint at the bottom of the thumb. The body naturally produces steroids to help dampen down inflammation. This appears to be one of the actions at this site. Success cannot be guaranteed but in 70-80% of patients there is some significant benefit. How long this lasts is unpredictable. Some people only have a few weeks or months of benefit. Others may have years or even life-long benefit such that they do not require further treatment, although may still have some mild on-going symptoms. If one injection provides only short term benefit then it may well be repeated. Patients often ask how many injections can be given. There is no set rule about this. Typically, however, a second injection will work a little less well than the first (although this is not inevitable). By the time three injections have been given, if this is over a shortish period, i.e. less than 1 year, then it is unlikely further injections will be successful and most surgeons would recommend an alternative approach. There are risks. The biggest risk is of failure. There are risks of some pain for a few days, although that is usually minimised by taking pain-killers, starting while the area is still numb from the local anaesthetic. In theory there is a risk of infection, but this seems very rare and has not occurred in our Practice in over 10 years. The main other risk is some thinning of the skin. This can present with some pallor and a little less bulk at the site and occasionally an increased tendency to bleeding if the area is knocked. This is not common with this injection but is common with some other injections. If it does occur then that is a relative contra-indication to further injections, i.e. the patient’s surgeon would probably decide not to go ahead with further injections because of the risks of further local damage.
What does the operation involve?
The main operations for thumb IP joint arthritis are called: IP joint debridement or with more severe disease: IP joint fusion (arthrodesis):
IP joint debridement: Debridement means cleaning out of the area in this case of abnormal bone and inflammatory tissue. It can typically be performed under local anaesthetic. It is also the first step in a fusion operation
IP joint fusion: Fusion obliterates the joint creating a solid bony link between the bones. This is stable, usually painless and reasonably functional.
In both operations the surgeon makes a cut over the back of the joint. The joint is opened up and cleaned out. If the decision is made to fuse the joint (usually based upon the degree of joint destruction) the thickened bone ends are trimmed to bone tissue with better healing tendencies. The bones are fixed together with a screw or wire construct. At the end of the operation the deep tissues are closed and the skin is then stitched up usually with absorbable stitches. A supportive dressing/plaster of Paris is applied and the patient’s arm elevated.
The total time in hospital is usually 2-4 hours.
What happens in the next few weeks?
The care of the hand in the post-operative period is very important in helping to ensure a good result. Initially the aims are comfort and elevation. These are met by keeping the hand up (elevated) especially in the first few days and by use of a long acting local anaesthetic (Bupivicaine). The local anaesthetic lasts at least 12 hours and sometimes 48 hours. Patients should start taking painkillers before the pain starts i.e. on return home and for at least 24 hours from there. This way most of our patients report little or any pain.
The patient is reviewed in clinic within 2 weeks of the operation. Typically dissolvable stitches are used so they should not require to be removed. A splint may be provided. Careful follow up is required to ensure a successful result with good relief of pain and a good range of movement.
The hand can be used for gentle activity after the first few days out of the dressing/plaster. Most patients can drive after a 2-3 weeks. Most patients return to work in 5-6 weeks, but this varies with occupation; heavy manual work usually takes about 3 months if ever. The wound should be massaged by the patient 3 times a day with a bland soft cream for 3 months once the wound is well healed (typically after 2 weeks). This reduces the scar sensitivity which can be a nuisance. If this is marked a Physio may be organised to help reduce the scar tenderness but this is rarely required. Patients should avoid pressing heavy use of the hand for a good 3 months from surgery.
What are the results of the operation?
At least 90% of patients in studies say they have a good or excellent result following this operation, with relief of the pain and a stable joint.
Are there any risks?
All interventions in medicine have risks. In general the larger the operation the greater the risks. For thumb IP joint debridement or fusion the risks include:
- The scar may be tender, in about 20% of patients. This usually improves with scar massage, over 3 months.
- Aching at the site may last for several months
- Grip strength can also take some months to return to normal.
- Stiffness may occur in particular in the fingers. This is usually short-term and only infrequently requires physiotherapy. But it is very important that it is resolved quickly to avoid permanent stiffness. This occurs rarely but can do associated with CRPS (see below)
- Numbness can occur around the scar but this rarely causes any functional problems.
- Wound infections occur in about 1% of cases. These usually quickly resolve with antibiotics.
- For joint fusion there is a risk of failure to achieve bone to bone union of to gain union with some malalignment. Either may (but not of necessity) require reoperation.
- Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome “CRPS”. This is a rare but serious complication, with no known cause or proven treatment. The nerves in the hand “over-react”, causing swelling, pain, discolouration and stiffness, which improve very slowly.
- Any operation can have unforeseen consequences and leave a patient worse than before surgery.